one Marrow Transplant

What is Bone Marrow Transplant? 

A bone marrow transplant (BMT) is a type of stem-cell transplantation performed to treat cancer. The procedure involves removing a patient’s bone marrow cells and replacing them with donor cells. 

The donor cells are taken from either a sibling or an unrelated donor. A BMT may be done if the patient does not have enough stem cells in their own body to fight off the disease.  

Living with a sickness that hurts your life is an excruciatingly unpleasant experience for both the sufferer and his family. 

A bone marrow transplant can undoubtedly improve a patient’s quality of life. In India, bone marrow transplant price is between 12-15 lakh for an allogeneic transplant and 8-10 lakh for an autologous transplant. It is critical to verify with your insurance company to see if the transplant cost is covered under your policy. 

What are stem cells? 

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can develop into many different types of cells. In humans, they are located in the blood, bone marrow, fat, muscle, skin, umbilical cord, placenta, and reproductive organs. 

They give rise to all of the specialized cells in our bodies. They can divide indefinitely without limit and can differentiate into any kind of cell within the human body.  

What is bone marrow? 

The bone marrow is where blood cells are produced. Blood cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Hematopoiesis is the production of blood cells. 

Bone marrow contains two kinds of cells: stromal cells and hematopoietically active cells. Stromal cells are the supportive cells of the bone marrow. 

These cells produce cytokines and regulate the differentiation of hematopoietic. Hematopoietically active stem cells are the progenitor cells that give rise to all the various lineages of blood cells.  

Who can donate bone marrow? 

Donors are people who donate their bone marrow to help someone else live longer. There are three categories of donors: family members, unrelated donors, and anonymous donors. Family members are relatives of the recipient. Unrelated donors are people who do not know the recipient. Anonymous donors are people who do know the recipient but don’t want to be identified.  

Who receives a bone marrow transplant? 

Recipients are patients who receive a bone marrow transplant. Patients may need a transplant because they have leukaemia, lymphoma, myeloma, or other cancers.  

Why does a person need BMT? 

A bone marrow transplant is intended to cure a variety of illnesses and cancers. When the dosages of chemotherapy or radiation required to cure a malignancy are so severe that the treatment permanently damages or destroys a person’s bone marrow stem cells, a bone marrow transplant may be required. If the bone marrow has been damaged by disease, bone marrow transplants may be required. 

A bone marrow transplant can be used to do the following: 

  • Replace damaged, inactive bone marrow with healthy, active bone marrow (for conditions such as leukaemia, aplastic anaemia, and sickle cell anaemia). 
  • Regenerate a new immune system that will fight existing or persistent leukaemia or other tumours that the chemotherapy or radiation used in the transplant did not kill. 
  • After heavy doses of chemotherapy and radiation are used to treat cancer, bone marrow is replaced, and normal function is restored. This is sometimes referred to as rescue. 
  • To avoid further harm from a hereditary disease process (such as Hurler’s syndrome and adrenoleukodystrophy), replace bone marrow with genetically healthy functioning bone marrow. 

Before the surgery, the risks and benefits must be thoroughly discussed with your healthcare physician and bone marrow transplant specialists. 

What are the risks of a Bone marrow transplant? 

The following adverse effects may occur immediately following the large doses of chemotherapy required for transplantation. 

  • Vomiting and nausea 
  • You have oral ulcers. 
  • Fatigue 
  • Platelet count is low, making it harder for your blood to clot. 
  • A lack of red blood cells causes anemia. 
  • Diarrhoea 

 

Long-term consequences

Some transplant complications manifest months or years later. These are some examples: 

  • Infertility refers to the inability to become pregnant or to make a woman pregnant when you want to. 
  • Cataracts are a type of eye ailment that produces blurry vision. 
  • Early menopause and sexual side effects 
  • Thyroid issues 
  • Damage to the lungs or bones

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